# Built-in functions :

• Python comes loaded with pre-built functions
• Conversion from hexadecimal to decimal is done by using built-in hex( ), Octal to a decimal using the built-in function oct( ).
• int( ) can also be used to get only the integer value of a float number or can be used to convert a number which is of type string to integer format. Similarly, the function str( ) can be used to convert the integer back to string format
• Also note that function bin( ) is used for binary and float( ) for decimal/float values. chr( ) is used for converting ASCII to its alphabet equivalent, ord( ) is used for the other way round.

# Simplifying Arithmetic Operations :

• round( ) function rounds the input value to a specified number of places or to the nearest integer.
• divmod(x,y) outputs the quotient and the remainder in a tuple(you will be learning about it in the further chapters) in the format (quotient, remainder).
• isinstance( ) returns True if the first argument is an instance of that class. Multiple classes can also be checked at once.
• pow(x,y,z) can be used to find the power y over x also the mod of the resulting value with the third specified number can be found i.e. : (xy % z).
• range( ) function outputs the integers of the specified range. It can also be used to generate a series by specifying the difference between the two numbers within a particular range. The elements are returned in a list (which will be discussed in detail later.)
• input( ) accepts input and stores it as a string. Hence, if the user inputs an integer, the code should convert the string to an integer and then proceed.